The West-inspired Baghdad Pact (1955), with its ultimately unsuccessful formation of the Central Treaty Organization, brought Soviet-Syria relations closer diplomatically.Syrians however perceived this agreement as a pact against themselves.Bogdanov stated, that "Presently, the Russian Defense Ministry has not a single person stationed in Syria.
It is Russia's only naval facility in the Mediterranean region and the only remaining military facility outside the former Soviet Union.
Since Russia forgave Syria 75%, or $9.8 billion, of its $13.4 billion Soviet-era debt and became its main arms supplier, Russia and Syria have conducted talks about allowing Russia to develop and enlarge its naval base, so that Russia can strengthen its naval presence in the Mediterranean.
Although the Soviet Union did not play a political role in the region, it did promote the establishment of the Syrian–Lebanese Communist Party in 1924.
Diplomatic relations between the Soviet Union and Syria were established in July 1944.
Soviet aid to Syria accelerated and included military and economic agreements.
Between 19, Syria received about 4 million from the Soviet Union for military and economic assistance.Indeed, among the consequences of the Baghdad Pact was not only a deepening of Syrian relations with the Soviet Union but also an alignment of Middle Eastern countries into allied satellites of the Eastern and Western blocs.The response of the Soviet Union to the Suez Crisis (late October 1956) increased Soviet prestige in the Middle East.On 30 September 2015, Russia started a military intervention in the Syrian Civil War in support of the al-Assad government, consisting of air strikes against militant groups opposed to the government.Following the October Revolution (1917), and the creation of the Soviet Union (1922), the Russian presence in Syria came to an end, which continued during the French Mandate period (1923−1946).During the Cold War (1947–1991) a stronger political bond developed, and Syria was considered an ally to the Soviet Union in opposition to the Western powers.