This study represents a step toward understanding the potential for zoonotic transmission of Ma HV1 outside the laboratory.
Trapped animals were transferred into transport cages and taken to the nearest local DWNP facility, where they were held up to 72 h before being transported to the DWNP headquarters in Kuala Lumpur or relocated to a new area.
Macaques were kept in groups in cages and provided with food and water throughout the holding period.
Most adult macaques are infected with Ma HV1, although the risk for transmission to persons who handle them during capture and translocation is unknown.
In Peninsular Malaysia, wild macaques are abundant, and translocation is used to mitigate human–macaque conflict.
18048 from the University of California (Davis, CA, USA).
When handling and sampling macaques, personnel involved with this study wore personal protective equipment (PPE; e.g., eye protection, double-layered nitrile gloves, Tyvek coveralls, and P100 respirators) ().Blood and swab samples were collected from each animal at its arrival at the headquarters or at the local DWNP facility before relocation.Macaques were immobilized with an intramuscular injection of a combination of 5 mg/kg ketamine and 5 mg/kg xylazine ().Animals were captured in accordance with the protocols and guidelines of the Manual for Human–Macaque Conflict Management in Peninsular Malaysia ().This study was conducted under Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee approval no.In macaques, Ma HV1 frequently remains latent in the trigeminal and lumbosacral ganglia; however, in response to stress, it can be asymptomatically reactivated and shed in saliva and urogenital excretions ().