Additionally, elements may exist in different isotopes, with each isotope of an element differing in the number of neutrons in the nucleus.
They point to a catastrophic origin for granites, consistent with the biblical timeframe for earth history and God’s judgment during the Flood.
Radiometric dating or radioactive dating is a technique used to date materials such as rocks or carbon, in which trace radioactive impurities were selectively incorporated when they were formed.
Together with stratigraphic principles, radiometric dating methods are used in geochronology to establish the geological time scale.
Among the best-known techniques are radiocarbon dating, potassium-argon dating and uranium-lead dating.
This transformation may be accomplished in a number of different ways, including alpha decay (emission of alpha particles) and beta decay (electron emission, positron emission, or electron capture).
Another possibility is spontaneous fission into two or more nuclides.
While the moment in time at which a particular nucleus decays is unpredictable, a collection of atoms of a radioactive nuclide decays exponentially at a rate described by a parameter known as the half-life, usually given in units of years when discussing dating techniques.
After one half-life has elapsed, one half of the atoms of the nuclide in question will have decayed into a "daughter" nuclide or decay product.
Most people think that radioactive dating has proven the earth is billions of years old.
After all, textbooks, media, and museums glibly present ages of millions of years as fact.
The method compares the abundance of a naturally occurring radioactive isotope within the material to the abundance of its decay products, which form at a known constant rate of decay.