"Much of the government remains ultra-conservative on the issue, yet Western influence and a general mood of liberalization has created friction that leads to what seems like a bipolar attitude toward sex." Burger is not convinced that China will necessarily follow the same path of sexual liberalization as Western countries.
Meanwhile, sex has also become an avenue for rebellion.
Earlier this year, leadership in Hunan Province arrested 37 people following blackmail threats involving photo-shopped pictures of officials inserted into pornographic settings.
When Hanna, a 26 year old woman from China's Hebei Province, asked her parents where she came from as a little girl, they said they found her in a trash can.
Even now, everything she knows about sex she learned from chatting with her girlfriends.
Professor Li is optimistic that the situation will continue to improve.
Economic development has enabled the country to make a lot of progress, and this progress has been realized in the sexual sphere, too.
Brothel-owners are occasionally sentenced to death, and distributors and producers of pornography face life in prison.
Film, television and the Internet are carefully monitored for "spiritual pollution." But while pornography has been banned since the regime's inception, Chinese Internet users are no strangers to adult content.
Today's China is in the midst of a sexual revolution.
There are over 2,000 sex shops openly doing business in Beijing alone, and most of their products are made in China.
Chinese men often don't know how to practice safe sex, Hanna explains, and so many of her friends -- "too many" -- have had abortions.