Poles and Ukrainians have always dominated the city's population.
After the Treaty of Buchach of 1672, Kamianets-Podilskyi was briefly part of the Ottoman Empire and capital of Podolya eyalet.
To counter the Turkish threat to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, King Jan III Sobieski built a fortress nearby, Okopy Świętej Trójcy (now Okopy, Ternopil Oblast; meaning "the Entrenchments of the Holy Trinity").
In 1914, a direct railway line linked the city to Proskurov.
During World War I, the city was occupied by Austria-Hungary in 1915.
One of the towers was used as a prison cell for Ustym Karmeliuk, a prominent peasant rebel leader of the early 19th century), who managed to escape from it three times.
In 1798, Polish nobleman Antoni Żmijewski founded a Polish theatre in the city. In 1867 the Roman Catholic Diocese of Kamyanets-Podilskyi was abolished by the Russians authorities. According to the Russian census of 1897, Kamianets-Podilskyi remained the largest city of Podolia with a population of 35,934.
During the Polish-Soviet War, the city was captured by the Polish Army and was under Polish administration from November 16, 1919 to July 12, 1920.
It was later ceded to Soviet Russia in the 1921 Treaty of Riga, which determined the future of the area for the next seven decades as part of the Ukrainian SSR.
With the collapse of the Russian Empire in 1917, the city was briefly incorporated into several short-lived Ukrainian states: the Ukrainian People's Republic, the Hetmanate, and the Directoriya, before ending up as part of the Ukrainian SSR when Ukraine fell under Bolshevik power.